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December 2009 following the translocation from the Czech Republic of the last four potentially breeding NWR in captivity. There are a number of alternative ways to classify species and there has not been universal agreement on this issue. A detailed rebuttal of Groves et al. It is thus premature to come to a final conclusion on the issue at this time. Founder Genome Equivalent of only 1. Two subspecies of White Rhinoceros are currently recognized, the northern and the southern, each having a strikingly discontinuous range. The Southern White Rhino is now the most numerous of the rhino taxa, with South Africa remaining the stronghold for this subspecies despite increased poaching.
White Rhino as a species but not C. For this reason, only whole countries are shaded on the map. Click here to open the map viewer and explore range. As of Dec 2008 there were an estimated 750 in captivity worldwide. However, by the end of 2010, after years of protection and many translocations, the subspecies has grown to 20,160 wild animals.
3,500 year old White Rhino subfossil indicates at one stage Kenya was also once a white rhino range state. Reports of a few possible Northern White Rhino surviving in a remote part of Southern Sudan have yet to be confirmed although surveys are planned. For further information about this species, see 4185_Ceratotherium_simum. A PDF viewer such as Adobe Reader is required. The species is found in grassland in bushveld savanna habitats. However poaching has escalatated dramatically in recent years in South Africa, Zimbabwe and Kenya in response to significant increases in black market prices for horn. For example the total numbers of rhinos poached annually in the major range state South Africa has increased from 13, to 83, 122, 333 and 448 over the period 2007-2011.
Poaching and civil wars in both Democratic Republic of the Congo and neighbouring Sudan have had a devastating impact on Northern White Rhino. Whilst poaching pressure initially increased during civil unrest and war in the late 1990s, good reproduction enabled the population to remain relatively stable. However, since 2003, poaching escalated and the population declined rapidly with 11 carcasses found in a three-month period between March and May 2004. Effective field protection of rhino populations has been critical.
Many remaining rhino are now concentrated in fenced sanctuaries, conservancies, rhino conservation areas and intensive protection zones where law enforcement effort can be concentrated at effective levels. Monitoring has also provided information to guide biological management decision-making aimed at managing rhino populations for rapid population growth. By 1977, all African rhino species were listed on CITES Appendix I, and all international commercial trade in rhinos and their products was prohibited. Numbers have almost trebled since then.
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Products Weight management, nutritional supplements, personal care, sports nutrition. Herbalife International is a global multi-level marketing corporation that develops, markets and sells nutrition supplements, weight management, sports nutrition and personal-care products. The company was founded by Mark Hughes in 1980, and it employs an estimated 8,000 people worldwide.
2 million independent distributors, some of whom earn profit on product sales and additional commission from a network marketing compensation structure. In February 1980, Mark Hughes began selling the original Herbalife weight management product from the trunk of his car. Hughes often stated that the genesis of his product and program stemmed from the weight loss concerns of his mother Joanne, whose premature death he attributed to an eating disorder and an unhealthy approach to weight loss. His stated goal was to change the nutritional habits of the world. His first product was a protein shake designed to help people manage their weight. He structured his company using a direct-selling, multilevel marketing model.
In 1985, the California Attorney General sued the company for making inflated claims about the efficacy of its products. Mark Hughes died at age 44 on May 20, 2000. The Los Angeles County Coroner autopsy results ruled that the entrepreneur had died of an accidental overdose of alcohol and doxepin, an anti-depressant. Plant sources of ephedrine were removed from Herbalife products in 2002 after several U. Food and Drug Administration banned supplements containing ephedrine in 2004. Johnson joined Herbalife as CEO following a 17-year career with The Walt Disney Company.