Gheranda samhita bihar school of yoga pdf

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This article is about a scripture of Hinduism. For field of traditional Indian medicine, see Ayurveda. The term “black” implies “the un-arranged, unclear, motley collection” of verses in Yajurveda, in contrast to the “white” which implies the “well gheranda samhita bihar school of yoga pdf, clear” Yajurveda. The earliest and most ancient layer of Yajurveda samhita includes about 1,875 verses, that are distinct yet borrow and build upon the foundation of verses in Rigveda.

Monier-Williams translates yajus as “religious reverence, veneration, worship, sacrifice, a sacrificial prayer, formula, particularly mantras muttered in a peculiar manner at a sacrifice”. Michael Witzel interprets Yajurveda to mean a “knowledge text of prose mantras” used in Vedic rituals. Ralph Griffith interprets the name to mean “knowledge of sacrifice or sacrificial texts and formulas”. The Yajurveda text includes Shukla Yajurveda of which about 16 recensions are known, while the Krishna Yajurveda may have had as many as 86 recensions.

Only two recensions of the Shukla Yajurveda have survived, Madhyandina and Kanva, and others are known by name only because they are mentioned in other texts. These two recensions are nearly the same, except for a few differences. The samhita in the Shukla Yajurveda is called the Vajasaneyi Samhita. The name Vajasaneyi is derived from Vajasaneya, patronymic of sage Yajnavalkya, and the founder of the Vajasaneyi branch. The best known and best preserved of these recensions is the Taittirīya saṃhitā. Some attribute it to Tittiri, a pupil of Yaksa and mentioned by Panini.

The Maitrayani saṃhitā is the oldest Yajurveda Samhita that has survived, and it differs largely in content from the Taittiriyas, as well as in some different arrangement of chapters, but is much more detailed. The Kāṭhaka saṃhitā or the Caraka-Kaṭha saṃhitā, according to tradition was compiled by Katha, a disciple of Vaisampayana. Like the Maitrayani Samhita, it offers much more detailed discussion of some rituals than the younger Taittiriya samhita that frequently summarizes such accounts. In Krishna Yajurveda, each of the recensions has or had their Brahmana text mixed into the Samhita text, thus creating a motley of the prose and verses, and making it unclear, disorganized. The Vedas are notoriously hard to date accurately as they are compilations and were traditionally preserved through oral tradition leaving virtually no archaeological evidence. Scholars such as Georg Feuerstein and others suggest that the dates given to most of these texts is far too late. Offer butter and milk to fire.