Single-sex education, also known as single-gender education, is the practice of conducting education where male and female students attend separate classes or in separate buildings or schools. In 19th century Western Europe, the most common way for girls to access education was at home, through private tutoring, girls education in india pdf not through schools. This was especially the case in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, which strongly resisted women’s involvement in schools.
During the 19th century, ideas about education started to change: modern ideas that defined education as a right, rather than as a privilege available only to a small elite, started to gain support in North America and Europe. As such, mass elementary education was introduced, and more and more coeducational schools were set up. The topic of single-sex education is controversial. Advocates argue that it aids student outcomes such as test scores, graduation rates, and solutions to behavioral difficulties. Opponents, however, argue that evidence for such effects is inflated or non-existent, and instead argue that such segregation can increase sexism and impairs the development of interpersonal skills.
Advocates of single-sex education believe that there are persistent gender differences in how boys and girls learn and behave in educational settings, and that such differences merit educating them separately. One version of this argument holds that male-female brain differences favor the implementation of gender-specific teaching methods, but such claims have not held up to rigorous scrutiny. A systematic review published in 2005 covering 2221 studies was commissioned by the US Department of Education entitled Single-sex versus coeducational schooling: A systematic review. The review, which had statistical controls for socio-economic status of the students and resources of the schools, etc.
There is some support for the premise that single-sex schooling can be helpful, especially for certain outcomes related to academic achievement and more positive academic aspirations. For many outcomes, there is no evidence of either benefit or harm. There is limited support for the view that single-sex schooling may be harmful or that coeducational schooling is more beneficial for the student. The quantitative data itself “finds positive results are three to four times more likely to be found for single sex schools than for coeducational schools in the same study for both academic achievement and socio-emotional development,” said Cornelius Riordan, one of the directors of the research.
Australian researchers reported in 2009 that high school students’ interpersonal relationships were positively associated with both academic and nonacademic achievement, although the interaction between boys and girls in a majority of cases resulted in less homework done, less enjoyment of school, and lower reading and math scores. A UCLA report commissioned by the National Coalition of Girls’ Schools used data from a large national survey of U. In September 2011, the journal Science published a study deeply critical of gender-segregated schooling, arguing that the movement towards single-sex education “is deeply misguided, and often justified by weak, cherry-picked, or misconstrued scientific claims rather than by valid scientific evidence”. Opponents of single-sex education, including the authors of the Science article, argue that it is not single-sex education that is producing positive results but rather, the ability of students who enter such programs and resources of the schools that are responsible.
They also argue that single-sex schooling does not adequately prepare students for adult workplaces and society, where males and females need to respect and communicate effectively with each other. In January 2012, an unpublished study of the University of Pennsylvania, involving a randomized experiment, considered the experiment with the highest level of scientific evidence. The data comes from schools in South Korea, where a law was passed randomly assigning students to schools in their district. Allison published a meta-analysis comparing achievement and attitudes in single-sex versus coeducational schools that included 1. 6 million students in grades K-12.
The study concluded that “there is little evidence of an advantage of SS schooling for girls or boys for any of the outcomes. In a 2015 review of this study Cornelius Riordan observed that the authors “employ a 0. James Cook Boys High Located in Sydney, NSW, Australia. In Australia, most single sex schools are fee paying independent or Catholic schools. This section does not cite any sources. In Bangladesh, a large number of city schools and colleges are single-sex institutions except for universities. In India, boys are said to do better in single-sex classrooms because of the varying educational needs of boys when compared to girls.
However, the number of single-sex state schools has dropped substantially over the past 40 years, from 2,500 to 400. A country with conservative traditions, Ireland has significantly more pupils studying in single-sex schools than other western countries: more than one third of second level schools are single sex. In the Middle East public schools are all gender-segregated, whereas private schools are coeducational. There are single-sex private schools as well. In Iran, single-sex public schools have been in place since the Islamic Revolution. Universities are mostly coeducational in Iran.
In the United Arab Emirates, private schools are mostly coeducational, while public schools are segregated. In Syria, private schools are coeducational, while public schools are mostly, but not exclusively, segregated. Ultraorthodox as well as a few other private religious schools are single-sex. In Nigeria, public opinion regarding sexes in schools is influenced most by religious and cultural beliefs rather than the idea that students learn better separated into sexes.
People in northern Nigeria are mostly Muslim and as a result, are more inclined to choose single-sex education over co-education in-line with their religious beliefs. In contrast to the predominance of co-education schools, many prestigious educational institutions only accept one sex, major examples are, King’s College and Queen’s College situated in Lagos. Most of the private schools in Karachi, Lahore, Hyderabad, Islamabad and Rawalpindi are co-education but government schools are all single-sex education. Around 1800, girls’ middle-secondary schools begun to appear, and become more common during the 19th century. By the mid 1970s, most of them had been scrapped and replaced with coeducation. By a law from 1575, girls as well as boys were expected to be given elementary schooling. The establishment for girl schools were left to each city’s own authorities, and no school for girls were founded until the Rudbeckii flickskola in 1632, and that school were to be an isolated example.
In the first half of the 19th century, a growing discontent over the shallow education of women eventually resulted in the finishing schools being gradually replaced by girl schools with a higher level of academic secondary education, called “Higher Girl Schools”, in the mid-19th century. In 1904-1909, co-education were initiated on governmental secondary educational schools, which undermined the girl schools. In 1927, all Gymnasiums for males were made co-educational, a reform which made girl schools redundant. In England, most secondary education was single-sex until the 1970s. Single-sex schooling was traditionally the norm for secondary schools in most parts of the United Kingdom, especially for private, grammar and secondary modern schools, but most UK schools are now coeducational. In the state sector of the U.