Printable Version: Download as a PDF . Voiceover: 168 Spaniards attacked the imperial army of the Incas in the highlands of Peru. Before the day was out, they had massacred 7,000 people, and taken control of guns germs steel pdf Inca Empire. Not a single Spanish life was lost in the process.
Why was the balance of power so uneven between Old World and New? And why, in the centuries that followed, were Europeans the ones who conquered so much of the globe? These are questions that fascinate Professor Jared Diamond. Voiceover: For two years, a band of Spanish conquistadors has been traveling in search of gold and glory.
They’re not professional soldiers, but mercenaries and adventurers, led by a retired army captain, Francisco Pizarro. He’s already made a fortune for himself in the colonies of Central America. Now he’s taking his men south, into unknown territory. They are the first Europeans to have climbed the Andes, and ventured this far into the continent of South America. Voiceover: As they travel, they find evidence of a large native civilization. They’ve reached the edge of the mighty Inca Empire.
For Indians and Spaniards alike, any encounter is a clash of cultures. These Indians have never seen white men before, and have no idea of the threat they represent. They can’t imagine that within a few days, these strangers will turn their world upside down. Voiceover: By the 1530s, the Inca Empire was enormous. It stretched along the length of the Andes, from modern-day Ecuador to central Chile, a distance of 2,500 miles.
At the time, the Spanish king controlled a third of mainland Europe, but Spain itself had only recently become a unified state, having fought off 700 years of occupation by Islamic Moors. Voiceover: It was still a rural society. He spent much of his childhood here, working as a swineherd in the fields nearby. Today he’s remembered as a great warrior.
And over centuries, why did Pizarro and his men conquer the Incas instead of the other way round? A quest to understand the origins of inequality in our world. Not a single Zulu could get within ten paces of the encampment. A journey from one end of the Americas to the other is a journey from north to south, voiceover: But settlers like the Du Toit knew that this was not an empty land. Jared Diamond: So it seemed that the tropics had defeated European guns — goethe und Lamarck. Voiceover: While Ataxalpa and his men enter Cajamarca, the ferocity of the Zulu defense of their land was something the voertrekkers had simply not expected.