Type or paste a DOI norton anthology of world literature volume 2 pdf into the text box. This article is about the art of written work.
For literature in the field technical publications, see Academic publishing. Literature, most generically, is any body of written works. More restrictively, literature is writing considered to be an art form, or any single writing deemed to have artistic or intellectual value, often due to deploying language in ways that differ from ordinary usage. Literature can be classified according to whether it is fiction or non-fiction, and whether it is poetry or prose. Definitions of literature have varied over time: it is a “culturally relative definition”.
In Western Europe prior to the 18th century, literature denoted all books and writing. These are a type of poem in which the written words are arranged in such a way to produce a visual image. Poetry is a form of literary art which uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, prosaic ostensible meaning. Novel: a long fictional prose narrative. Melville House classifies it as “too short to be a novel, too long to be a short story”. There is no precise definition in terms of word or page count.
Drama is literature intended for performance. The form is often combined with music and dance, as in opera and musical theater. Greek drama exemplifies the earliest form of drama of which we have substantial knowledge. Inscribed hieroglyphics cover an obelisk in foreground. A stone statue is in background. The history of literature follows closely the development of civilization. This section possibly contains original research.
Different historical periods are reflected in literature. National and tribal sagas, accounts of the origin of the world and of customs, and myths which sometimes carry moral or spiritual messages predominate in the pre-urban eras. Literature in all its forms can be seen as written records, whether the literature itself be factual or fictional, it is still quite possible to decipher facts through things like characters’ actions and words or the authors’ style of writing and the intent behind the words. In ancient China, early literature was primarily focused on philosophy, historiography, military science, agriculture, and poetry.
In ancient India, literature originated from stories that were originally orally transmitted. Early genres included drama, fables, sutras and epic poetry. Roman histories and biographies anticipated the extensive mediaeval literature of lives of saints and miraculous chronicles, but the most characteristic form of the Middle Ages was the romance, an adventurous and sometimes magical narrative with strong popular appeal. In the Age of Reason philosophical tracts and speculations on history and human nature integrated literature with social and political developments. Genre fiction also showed it could question reality in its 20th century forms, in spite of its fixed formulas, through the enquiries of the skeptical detective and the alternative realities of science fiction. There are numerous awards recognizing achievement and contribution in literature. An essay consists of a discussion of a topic from an author’s personal point of view, exemplified by works by Michel de Montaigne or by Charles Lamb.
Genres related to the essay may include the memoir and the epistle. Philosophical, historical, journalistic, and scientific writings are traditionally ranked as literature. As advances and specialization have made new scientific research inaccessible to most audiences, the “literary” nature of science writing has become less pronounced over the last two centuries. Now, science appears mostly in journals. Philosophy has become an increasingly academic discipline. Literature allows readers to access intimate emotional aspects of a person’s character that would not be obvious otherwise. It benefits the psychological development and understanding of the reader.
For example, it allows a person to access emotional states from which the person has distanced himself or herself. Hogan also explains that the temporal and emotional amount which a person devotes to understanding a character’s situation in literature allows literature to be considered “ecological valid in the study of emotion”. This can be understood in the sense that literature unites a large community by provoking universal emotions. Furthermore, literature is being more popularly regarded as a psychologically effective research tool. It can be considered a research tool because it allows psychologists to discover new psychological aspects and it also allows psychologists to promote their theories. Maslow’s “Third Force Psychology Theory” even allows literary analysts to critically understand how characters reflect the culture and the history in which they are contextualized. It also allows analysts to understand the author’s intended message and to understand the author’s psychology.
A significant portion of historical writing ranks as literature, particularly the genre known as creative nonfiction, as can a great deal of journalism, such as literary journalism. However, these areas have become extremely large, and often have a primarily utilitarian purpose: to record data or convey immediate information. Some writings of Plato and Aristotle, the law tables of Hammurabi of Babylon, or even the early parts of the Bible could be seen as legal literature. Electronic literature is a literary genre consisting of works that originate in digital environments. Films, videos and broadcast soap operas have carved out a niche which often parallels the functionality of prose fiction. Graphic novels and comic books present stories told in a combination of sequential artwork, dialogue and text. Literary genre is a mode of categorizing literature.