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Free Ebook Download Free download lesson plan, resume sample and terms paper in PDF. Download or read online on cechomor. Your Skeletal System Searchlight Books How Does Your Body Work? What Is Mpn In Maths . The 36 Hour Day: A Family Guide To Caring For People With Alzheimer Disease, Other Dementias, And Memory Loss In Later Life By Nancy L. For other forms of this element, see Allotropes of oxygen.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. As compounds including oxides, the element makes up almost half of the Earth’s crust. UVB radiation and the high-altitude ozone layer helps protect the biosphere from ultraviolet radiation. Oxygen was discovered independently by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, in Uppsala, in 1773 or earlier, and Joseph Priestley in Wiltshire, in 1774, but Priestley is often given priority because his work was published first. The name oxygen was coined in 1777 by Antoine Lavoisier, whose experiments with oxygen helped to discredit the then-popular phlogiston theory of combustion and corrosion.
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One of the first known experiments on the relationship between combustion and air was conducted by the 2nd century BCE Greek writer on mechanics, Philo of Byzantium. In the late 17th century, Robert Boyle proved that air is necessary for combustion. Mayow observed that antimony increased in weight when heated, and inferred that the nitroaereus must have combined with it. He also thought that the lungs separate nitroaereus from air and pass it into the blood and that animal heat and muscle movement result from the reaction of nitroaereus with certain substances in the body. Robert Hooke, Ole Borch, Mikhail Lomonosov, and Pierre Bayen all produced oxygen in experiments in the 17th and the 18th century but none of them recognized it as a chemical element. Established in 1667 by the German alchemist J. Becher, and modified by the chemist Georg Ernst Stahl by 1731, phlogiston theory stated that all combustible materials were made of two parts.
A drawing of an elderly man sitting by the table and facing parallel to the drawing. Joseph Priestley is usually given priority in the discovery. Oxygen was first discovered by Swedish pharmacist Carl Wilhelm Scheele. The French chemist Antoine Laurent Lavoisier later claimed to have discovered the new substance independently. Priestley visited Lavoisier in October 1774 and told him about his experiment and how he liberated the new gas. Lavoisier conducted the first adequate quantitative experiments on oxidation and gave the first correct explanation of how combustion works.