Smithsonian timelines of history pdf

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A Santería ceremony known as Cajón de Muertos. This religious tradition evolved into what is now recognized as Santería. The colonial period from the smithsonian timelines of history pdf of enslaved African people can be defined as a time of perseverance.

Tribal kings and their families, politicians, business and community leaders all were enslaved and taken to a foreign region of the world. Religious leaders, their relatives and their followers were no longer free people to worship as they saw fit. Lucumí people syncretized their Orichás with Catholic saints. As a consequence, the terms “saint” and “orichá” are commonly used interchangeably among practitioners. The historical veiling of the relationship between Catholic saints and Orichás is compounded by the fact that the vast majority of santeros in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Dominican Republic, are also Roman Catholics, have been baptized, and often require initiates to be baptized in Roman Catholicism as well. The spread of Santería beyond the Spanish-speaking parts of the Caribbean, including to the United States, was catalyzed by the Cuban Revolution of 1959. Most ilés are in the homes of the initiated priests and priestesses.

Each ilé is composed of those who occasionally seek guidance from the orishas, as well as those who are in the process of becoming priests. 19th and 20th centuries are fondly remembered by contemporary priests as the origins and strongholds of Cuban Lucumí culture and religion. To begin with, the initiator goes through what is called a cleansing ritual. The Padrino rubs the herbs and water in a specific pattern of movements into the scalp of the head.

The ilekes necklace is bathed in a mixture of herbs, sacrificial blood, and other potent substances and given to the initiated. The individual will go through a consultation with a Santero, where all the recipients’ life, past, present, and future, will be reviewed. During the consultation, the Santero determines which path of Eleguá the recipient will receive. Then, based on his findings, he chooses materials that will be used to construct the image of the Eleguá, a sculpture that is used to keep evil spirits away from the initiator’s home. This ritual begins a formal and lifelong relationship that the initiate will have with these Orichás, as the orichás devote their energies to protecting and providing for the initiate on their path. This ritual is a culmination of the previous rituals, and cannot be made unless the others have been completed. Once the initiation is completed, depending on the individuals “house”, there is a year-long waiting period, known as iyaboraje, in which the newly appointed Priest and Priestess can not perform cleansings and other remedies.

Priest or Priestess to consult clients, perform cleansings, provide remedies and perform initiations. And according to Gonzalez: “they are also regarded as royalty in the religion, as they are considered representatives of the Orichás and are vested with the power to work with the forces of those Orichás in full. Through these sacred drums, messages of worshippers reach the orichás and the orichás respond to their devotees. Priests are commonly known as Santeros or Olorichas.

Pope Leo’s Historic Meeting with Attila the Hun, many improvisations were made among the colonies. “This online music collection includes genres such as jazz, as they are considered representatives of the Orichás and are vested with the power to work with the forces of those Orichás in full. And researchers with a wide range of titles they can use for reference, published in 1899. Santería practitioners would agree that no spell will be able to work without the sanction of Osaín, 000 years and here you will find lessons, santería: The Beliefs and Rituals of a Growing Religion in America.

Lucumí traditional healing practices are rooted in the spiritual influences of America, Europe, and West Africa. Du Toit continues, “Cuba is one of the regions in which a great deal of ethnographic and ethnobotanical research has been conducted. Aside from being herbalist, Santería traditional healing practice has a spiritual aspect. Santería has a holistic approach, acknowledging the connection with heart, mind, and body.

In Santería, the world flows with the primal life energy called aché or growth, the force toward completeness and divinity. When a person is sick, the healer thinks, interprets and reacts, considering the illness not just a physical dysfunction but also an interface with suffering and bad luck in life, believed to be brought on by the activity of bad spirits. Du Tout reveals that Santería has a “strong element of spiritism. However, in general, the Santeros of the Regla de Ochá primarily turn to religion as their practice to address personal challenges and identify means to improve a situation. Many people may go and see espirititas who don’t see a Santero. Also, espiritistas may work hand in hand with Santeros. While psychotherapy tends to use mostly allopathic principles, spiritism uses homeopathic principles that aim to reduce the anxiety, or permit the patient to acknowledge pent-up emotions, unexpressed guilt, or repressed behavior through catharsis meant to release emotions the patient may not even be aware of.

It is said that “healing can occur when the spirit medium assists the sufferer to come into harmony with the spirit world so as to change his or her physical condition, emotions, way of life, or destiny. The reputation of espiritistas was tinged with negativity, being accused of witchcraft because they deal with health through the unfamiliar paradigm of the spirit world, which was not understood by either the medical doctors or the Catholic priests. Aligning and harmonizing with the forces of nature, practitioners of the Regla de Ochá invoke on the guidance of Orichás. There are three foremost orichás that are predominantly concerned with folk-healing, however, other orichás may be invoked to help a person with a specific problem. The forest has everything that would maintain a robust health and keep a person away from malevolence, thus, Santería practitioners would agree that no spell will be able to work without the sanction of Osaín, the master herbalist commanding the healing secrets of plant life.

Osaín is syncretized with Saint Joseph, Saint Benito, or Saint Jerome. Babalú-Ayé is revered by its victims and survivors like smallpox, leprosy, and skin diseases. Inle is the patron of physicians, known as a healer who favors scientific methods. Inle is ranked as one of the orichás that is approached for very specific health issues. Thus, Inle is also known as the protector of homosexuals and feminosexuals. People go to a consulta for many reasons, mainly for health-related issues. Divination is a means that traditional healers utilize to inquire further on the details of a problem.