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In Arabic philosophical tradition, he is known with the honorific “the Second Master”, after Aristotle. Little is known about his life. From incidental accounts it is known that he spent significant time in Baghdad with Christian scholars including the cleric Yuhanna ibn Haylan, Yahya ibn Adi, and Abu Ishaq Ibrahim al-Baghdadi. He later spent time in Damascus, Syria and Egypt before returning to Damascus where he died in 950-1. His name was Abū Naṣr Muḥammad b.
Muḥammad Farabi, sometimes with the family surname al-Ṭarḵānī, i. Scholars largely agree that Farabi’s ethnic background is not knowable. Farabi’s oldest biographer—mentions in his ʿUyūn that al-Farabi’s father was of Persian descent. Al-Farabi spent almost his entire life in Baghdad. In the auto-biographical passage preserved by Ibn Abī Uṣaibiʿa, Farabi stated that he had studied logic, medicine and sociology with Yūḥannā bin Ḥaylān up to and including Aristotle’s Posterior Analytics, i. Henry Corbin writes that the evidence supports the opinion common in Iran that al-Farabi was Shiite. Corbin argues that there are many similarities between what he calls Farabi’s “prophetic philosophy” and the teachings of Shiite Imams.
Najjar Fauzi likewise argues that al-Farabi’s political philosophy was influenced by Shiite sects. Farabi made contributions to the fields of logic, mathematics, music, philosophy, psychology, and education. Though he was mainly an Aristotelian logician, he included a number of non-Aristotelian elements in his works. Al-Farabi also considered the theories of conditional syllogisms and analogical inference, which were part of the Stoic tradition of logic rather than the Aristotelian. In it, he presents philosophical principles about music, its cosmic qualities, and its influences. He also wrote a treatise on the Meanings of the Intellect, which dealt with music therapy and discussed the therapeutic effects of music on the soul.
As a philosopher, Al-Farabi was a founder of his own school of early Islamic philosophy known as “Farabism” or “Alfarabism”, though it was later overshadowed by Avicennism. Al-Farabi wrote a short treatise “On Vacuum”, where he thought about the nature of the existence of void. He also may have carried out the first experiments concerning the existence of vacuum, in which he investigated handheld plungers in water. Wrote Social Psychology and Principles of the Opinions of the Citizens of the Virtuous City, which were the first treatises to deal with social psychology. He stated that “an isolated individual could not achieve all the perfections by himself, without the aid of other individuals,” and that it is the “innate disposition of every man to join another human being or other men in the labor he ought to perform. In his treatise On the Cause of Dreams, which appeared as chapter 24 of his Principles of the Opinions of the Citizens of the Ideal City, he distinguished between dream interpretation and the nature and causes of dreams. The main influence on al-Farabi’s philosophy was the neo-Aristotelian tradition of Alexandria.
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