Aimed at both legislators and teaching by principles pdf, this handbook offers guidance on preparing curricula for teaching about religions and beliefs, preferred procedures for assuring fairness in the development of curricula, and standards for how they could be implemented. These guidelines were developed by the ODIHR Advisory Council of Experts on Freedom of Religion or Belief in co-operation with education experts.
Aimed at both legislators and schools, they offer guidance on preparing curricula for teaching about religions and beliefs, preferred procedures for assuring fairness in the development of curricula, and standards for how they could be implemented. OSCE is explicitly defined as the Author of this document. Any given method is only as effective as its implementation. This approach introduced the four principle language skills for the first time: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Oral communicative competence became the focus.
Comprehensible auditory input became important and speaking in the target language began to occur. With the advent and popularity of audio tapes, this approach ushered in the first recordings wherein the language learner could actually hear and mimic native speakers on reel-to-reel audio tapes, often used with earphones in a language lab setting. Lessons often began with a sample dialogue to be recited and memorized. This was followed up with substitution pattern and saturation drills in which the grammatical structure previously introduced was reinforced, with emphasis given to rapid fire student response. Repetition, substitution, transformation, and translation became the order of the day.
This method was strongly influenced by B. Skinner’s behaviorist view toward learning which favored habit-forming drill techniques. This method presented discussion in the target language as the major priority. Reference to English equivalents became discouraged. Grammar learning became inductive in nature without overt explanations given the pupil. Visualization activities that often times make use of a picture file, slide presentations, word games, dialogues, contests, recreational activities, empirical utterances, and realia provide situations with problem-solving tasks which might include the use of charts, maps, graphs, and advertisements, all to be performed on the spot in class. This approach, also known as TPR, was founded by James Asher.
Caleb Gattegno, originally out of Alexandria, Egypt, introduced this classroom technique wherein the teacher remains silent while pupils output the language on cue through perpetual prompting. This is the production before meaning school of thought and practice. It is based on the pioneering efforts in 1967 of Bulgarian medical doctor, hypnotist, and psychology professor Georgi Lozanov and on his techniques into superlearning. Classes are small and intensive, with a low-stress focus. Material is presented in an especially melodic and artistic way. This creative, dynamic, and non-directive approach to language learning was first elaborated by Charles Curran. It is designed to ease the learner into gradual independence and self-confidence in the target language.
This is also known as the Counseling-Learning method. Total immersion technique”: This generalized technique in foreign language pedagogy “immerses” or “submerges” the student directly and immediately into the target language from the first opening day or hour of class. The superior teacher has regularly gotten superior results regardless of the method. Bull’s Spanish for Teachers: Applied Linguistics, c. Anti Semantic: What’s in a Word?
Dogme language teaching is considered to be both a methodology and a movement. Dogme is a communicative approach to language teaching that encourages teaching without published textbooks and focuses instead on conversational communication among learners and teacher. Interactivity: the most direct route to learning is to be found in the interactivity between teachers and students and amongst the students themselves. Emergence: language and grammar emerge from the learning process. This is seen as distinct from the ‘acquisition’ of language. Affordances: the teacher’s role is to optimize language learning affordances through directing attention to emergent language. Voice: the learner’s voice is given recognition along with the learner’s beliefs and knowledge.
Empowerment: students and teachers are empowered by freeing the classroom of published materials and textbooks. Critical use: teachers and students should use published materials and textbooks in a critical way that recognizes their cultural and ideological biases. There are three precepts that emerge from the ten key principles. Conversation is seen as central to language learning within the Dogme framework, because it is the “fundamental and universal form of language” and so is considered to be “language at work”. Since real life conversation is more interactional than it is transactional, Dogme places more value on communication that promotes social interaction.
The Dogme approach considers that student-produced material is preferable to published materials and textbooks, to the extent of inviting teachers to take a ‘vow of chastity’ and not use textbooks. Dogme teaching has therefore been criticized as not offering teachers the opportunity to use a complete range of materials and resources. Dogme considers language learning to be a process where language emerges rather than one where it is acquired. Dogme shares this belief with other approaches to language education, such as task-based learning. Language is considered to emerge in two ways.