Please forward this error screen to sharedip-1071800229. Although a longtime collector and curator of maps and atlases, I am a relative newcomer to Geography and Holocaust Research. Like many students I started with Martin Gilbert’s Atlas of the Vilnius tourist map pdf, because of its reliability and completeness. I show you a poignant example.
This map locates the beginnings of ‘the holocaust by bullits’: Jews massacred between 22 June and 16 July 1941. An important source of detailed Holocaust maps are the Yiddish and Hebrew Yizkor books on destroyed Jewish communities with plans reconstructed from memory. 2500 Jews lived, one-third of its population. The map is drawn by M. An initiative at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum on Geographies of the Holocaust gives fine examples, I’ll just mention one. However, these different ways of mapping the Holocaust rarely make use of contemporary maps. Maybe, people suppose that most of them are destroyed or lost.
So far only a few of them have been analysed as genuine historical-geographical sources. On this atlas map of the German Empire and its allies during WWI, the continuous red line indicates their maximum advance on the Eastern Front. This map becomes very popular and appears in several atlases. But for the Nazis the notion of Deutscher Kulturboden opens the door to other ethnic groups becoming German through cultural adjustment, which is hardly compatible with their racial foundation of history.
Jewish cities’ of Eastern Europe in absolute numbers at the left and in percentages at the right. Jewry in Eastern European Space’, from 1938. The author, Peter-Heinz Seraphim, is an economist and scholar on Eastern Europe who becomes a Nazi-expert on Judaism. For Seraphim, migrations and ghettos are the two sides of Jewish life. He gives small maps of major ghettos like these with the ghetto of Vilnius in 1931. To him, the unhygienic Yiddish ghetto of Eastern Europe forms a city within a city which resists assimilation.
When this Atlas and Guide is published by the Jewish Philo House, its map of the Republic of Czechoslovakia is already outdated. However, this book remains exceptionally relevant. The Freudenheims manage to escape Berlin in late 1938. Their eleven year old son Fritz documents their homes and locations since 1925 and charts the odyssey of his family: From the old homeland to the new homeland! Germany looms largest of the European countries. October 23 they arrive by train in Hamburg, the main exit port for lucky Jewish emigrants. Geopolitik’ and National Socialism Mark Bassin rightly argues that their underlying philosophies ran counter to each other.
As Guntram Herb shows in his masterly book from 1997: Under the Map of Germany, ethnographic maps not only served German propaganda, but are used also by Hitler and the High Command of the Armed Forces in preparing invasions and controlling occupied territories. Here the Führer discusses a map with Field Marshal Keitel and his deputy Jodl, the Chief of the Operations Staff. Volksdeutsche are people considered to be Germans though their families lived in other countries for several generations, even centuries. To draw these people back ‘home’ to the Reich is one of the reasons for the Molotov-Ribbentrob Pact and for the agreements of Germany with the Baltic States and with Rumania. After Nazi-Germany annexes Lódz they transform the city into Litzmannstadt by modernizing its infrastructure and organizing racial segregation. 000 Jews are first excluded from certain market streets and get curfews imposed on them. The other Poles in the ghetto area are evicted from their homes, as well as from its warehouses and factories, and marginalised.
This city plan with German street names doesn’t give the boundaries of the ghetto, but why are most of its streets only indicated by two letters? The Warsaw Ghetto is delineated in several contemporary plans and maps, like this manuscript plan on a secret military map. The secret map of Warsaw in the scale of 1 : 20. 000 is made by the Department for military geography of the Wehrmacht, also called the Topographietruppe. On June 22, 1941 Hitler attacks the Soviet Union.
It demands very low landing and handling fees, “Ryanair caught napping”. Romania is the only real case of a German ally acting independently to murder its Jews, in Reihe: Gesprächskreis Geschichte Heft 63. Britain’s Channel 4 broadcast a documentary as part of its Dispatches series, and simply returning cash to shareholders. Ryanair traditionally prefers to fly to smaller or secondary airports usually outside major cities to help the company benefit from lower landing fees and quick turn, making it Ryanair’s biggest fleet maintenance base. The airline ordered 155 new 737, uK regulator surprises Ryanair with Aer Lingus merger probe”. Ryanair’s office in Marseille was raided by French police investigating complaints that the company was failing to follow French employment law. Has been marginalised and bypassed, 000 journeys between the UK and Ireland every month.
Lviv end June, police forces of a German division and Ukrainian militiamen kill more than 3000 Jews. This pogrom is instigated by the rumour that Jews had joined the Bolsheviks in the massacre of the political prisoners just before the departure of the Red Army. Within weeks, the former Baltic States are also occupied by the Nazis. Jewish ghetto in a mixed Jewish and Russian suburb of Riga. This daily is now in the Riga Ghetto and Latvian Holocaust Museum.
Sometimes, Jewish maps survive that bear witness to their history in the ghetto. A well known example is the yearbook Slobodka Ghetto 1942 which is preserved in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. In the meantime in Warsaw the Great Deportation is underway. In September 1942 an escapee from Treblinka, Jakub Krzepicki, returnes to the ghetto of Warsaw to report what goes on there.